Size and Growth in Corn Snakes

Corn snakes on the market today are antecedents of animals gathered from all over the natural range. Locality in reptiles can produce great variations in sizes, some specimens will reach a whopping 6ft while others will never exceed 3.5ft. This mean that a mix of animals from different locations ultimately means a mix of sizes further down the line. The locality of a corn snake can also effect the egg clutch and neonate sizes, for example corns bred from north eastern Florida will produce high numbers of eggs; this ultimately leads to individual neonates being of smaller size at birth. Other corn snakes may lay only 8/9 eggs but the babies will hatch at greater sizes. It goes to say then, that if you can find out the source of origin of your animal it will become easier to predict what size it may grow to.

As babies, corn snakes are capable of converting up to a third of what they eat into growth and body mass. Most babies will double their length in the their first year, and it is possible in some cases that the size required for sexual maturity can be achieved in as little as ten months. I do not recommend that you attempt to achieve this, as over feeding can lead to serious health problems. Most breeders will aim to achieve the minimal breeding size of 3ft in eighteen to twenty months. This is much safer. The rate of growth in young corn will not determine how large it will get when it’s fully grown; these factors are set in genetic stone and cannot be changed.

Adulthood in corn snakes is entirely down to size. If you plan to breed your corn, follow the rule of three; three years of age, three feet in length and at least 300 grams in weight. This is widely followed for best results. Reproduction in females of less than three feet puts extreme strain on their bodies due to dehydration and weight loss.

If you have a male corn snake, expect him to grow longer and heavier than a female might. The biggest recorded males have hit the six feet mark and weighed in at around 1000g. However, most corns stay at around four to five feet. As the snake grows, it will shed its skin. This may occur up to ten times during the first year, given that food is readily available. As the snake gets older shedding and growth will slow, and you can expect your snake to be fully grown after about five years. Be aware though, after this point when growth seems to slow or stop completely an adult corn snake will gradually gain weight. Feeding should be reduced as you now only need to maintain your animal, not grow it. Any sudden decreases in weight should be consulted by a veterinarian.

Find Out About Robo Dwarf Hamster

The Robo Dwarf Hamster is the smallest among its species. Looking at its white eyebrows and large black eyes, some people fall for this tiny creature when they see it.

Not surprisingly, many people love the idea of keeping it as a pet at home. It is very tiny in size, ranging from a mere one inch to three inches. It is light in weight too, weighing up to twenty-one grams or so. There are a few physical differences between this creature and other kinds of hamsters. Apart from being the smallest, it does not have any dorsal stripe. In addition, it has white eyebrows.

The lifespan of this tiny creature is usually three years as a pet. If more care is taken, it can live up to four years. Originating from Southern Mongolia, Northern China and Manchuria, this creature is generally shy or timid. So, you have to befriend it before touching it. Even if it allows you to touch it, it might be for a little while only. Some people make the mistake of touching it after eating food and not washing their hands properly.

When they do so, the creature usually bites their finger thinking that it is food. But, after a little while, it would realize that the finger is not food. This is because the creature has poor vision but a strong sense of smell. So, if you intend to take it out of its cage, make sure that you wash your hands first. This tiny creature is very agile and can jump up to one foot.

So, you have to be careful when you take it out of its cage. It might simply jump out from your hands and go missing somewhere at your house. Due to its very quick movements, finding it might not be easy. Some people love to watch its antics in the cage. To do so, put a red light in the room. Since it is blind to red light, this type of light does not disturb it.

Due to its size and antics, it is advisable to buy a plastic or glass aquarium as its cage. There are fewer chances for the creature to hurt itself in such a cage. Many people add a small and solid wheel so that the hamster can play to its heart content. A wheel of at least five inches in diameter would be best. For its bedding, consider using hardwood chip and some toilet paper or paper towel.

Fold the pieces of toilet paper or paper towel and put them on top of the hardwood chip bedding. This creature loves to bite often. You can give cardboard tubes or other suitable items for it to bite on. For food, simply give grains and small seeds as its main diet. As its supplementary diet, consider giving carrots, apples and such.

In short, many people love to keep a Robo Dwarf Hamster as a pet at home due to its cute appearance and lively antics. With proper care, this creature can stay alive up to four years.

– Doreen McGunagle is a dwarf hamster expert. For more great information on Robo Dwarf Hamsters visit []

Guinea Pig Sounds and Vocalization

Guinea pigs use sounds as a primary means of communication. Since cavies are herd animals, sounds are also their means of maintaining social rank. Understanding the sounds that cavy make is one of the basic prerequisites for understanding what your pet is trying to tell you in order to provide optimal care.

Here we are describing the most important categories of Guinea Pig Sounds:

1. Wheeking

  • Onomatopoeic name for a sound which is sometimes also called squealing or whistling
  • It is a common vocalization generally communicating anticipation and excitement, particularly about being fed, or in response to the presence of its owner
  • Wheeking is considered to be a form of begging
  • Sometimes it serves as a call for an attention as cavies frequently call to their human caretakers
  • One can often hear this sound when owner opens refrigerator or is rustling with plastic bags which cavy usually links to food source

2. Rumbling

  • Response to being scared or angry in which case the rumble often sounds higher and the body vibrates shortly
  • Also related to dominance within a group
  • Petting in the wrong spots (for instance, on cavy’s underside) often results in low rumbling sound

3. Bubbling and Purring

  • Sound made when the cavy is enjoying itself/being happy (e.g. when being petted or held)
  • Sound can be also produced when given food, grooming, or crawling around to investigate a new place
  • NOTE: Beware of the purring pitch and body language which complements this sound category and could change original meaning (if the purr is higher pitched toward the end, and the cavy seems to vibrate and tense, this could be interpreted as a sound of annoyance)

4. Chutting and Whining

  • Used to communicate annoyance or dislike for something an owner or another cavy is doing
  • Can be head in pursuit situations (both the pursuer and the pursuee)

5. Teeth Chattering

  • Aggressive vocalization: a sign of an agitated or angry cavy
  • Sound is made by rapidly gnashing the teeth
  • Often accompanied by showing the teeth (looks like a yawn, but more sinister) and raising the head
  • Freely interpreted as “back off” or “stay away”

6. Squealing or Shrieking

  • A high-pitched sound of discontent, pain and/or fear
  • Response to pain or immediate danger
  • ! URGENT NOTE: Check on your cavy ASAP to make sure everything is okay!

7. Chirping

  • Possibly the least understood or heard noise
  • Sound pattern similar to bird song
  • Could be related to stress or when a baby pigs want to be fed

If you wish to actually hear these sounds, please visit Guinea Pig Sounds page.

Guinea Pig Manual provides all the info about guinea pigs with concise, verified and simple instructions for guinea pig care. Guinea Pig Sounds are available for play.

We are information experts with 10 years of experience in dealing with information technologies, backed with a masters degree in information sciences and lots of experience and love for cavies.

Hamster Information – Campbell’s Dwarf Hamster Coats, Colours, and Patterns

To identify your hamster breed, you need to know specific information. The key is to know which attributes refer to coat type, which refer to patterns, and which attributes refer to colors.

Once you have this information about your hamster, then you can easily identify the breed.

In Campbell’s Dwarf hamster (Phodopus campbelli), there are three coat types. The first is normal, which is also called short-haired. The second type of coat is called satin; dwarf hamsters with this coat type have longer hairs, and – instead of looking like furballs – in my opinion, they look like mops with four legs. The third type of coat is called rex. This typically means that the hairs are curly. In the case of the Campbell’s dwarf, the whiskers are curly, and the coat is frizzy. The hair is very sparse, so the hamster looks bald.

As for information about the Cambell’s hamsters’ coat patterns, there are three types. The first is normal. With this pattern, the back is one color, and its belly is white. On the sides, the colors transition from dark to light in a series of arches. The animal has a dark stripe down its back.

The second coat pattern is called platinum. The topcoat is brown grey, but the tips of the hairs on the dwarf hamster’s shoulders are white. The dorsal stripe is black and the side arches appear amber. The ears are dark grey.

The third coat pattern is called mottled. This is a dwarf hamster with irregular patches of white. Also, the animals eyes are red.

As far as information about dwarf hamster coat colors, they are numerous: besides the normal agouti-colored coat, Campbell’s dwarf Hamsters coats come in the colors beige, black, lilac, blue, opal, argente, blue fawn, lilac fawn, dove, white, albino, champagne, harlequin, and white-bellied.

The best place to see all of the coat type, pattern, and color combinations is at a hamster show.

Matthew Alexander Boreau is fond of animals. He writes about hamsters and birds. He also sells unique bird houses [] and best bird feeders [] at All American Bird, a 100% Veteran owned business.

How Do Birds Know How to Talk?

Birds such as parrots are social creatures. They inhabit flocks and regularly communicate with one another. The attention that each one gives and gets is essential to its well-being.

When a bird comes into your house, it thinks it has come into a flock of non-winged, non-flying, oddly shaped birds. It still wants to communicate with its flock. It wants to give as well as get attention. These animals learn sounds by mimicry. Even non-speaking birds such as songbirds learn to sing by imitating the adult birds. A few sounds are innate – the feathered creatures are born with the knowledge to make these sounds, but complex sounds are learned by hearing other birds.

Parrots and other speaking birds can mimic the complex sounds of human speech. It may take them a while, but your feathered pet will soon repeat what they hear. If it is essential to you that your bird learn to speak, then adopt an adult which already speaks. It will readily pick up new words.

Until a birds speaks, it will squawk and otherwise make a racket. It wants you to communicate with it, and it wants attention. If you yell at a squaking bird, it will be counter productive, because you will be giving it the attention that it craves.

Birds require care and understanding. They are needy, in that they need attention from their human companions to thrive.

You can teach your bird to talk by speaking to it regularly. Use a recorded message that plays over and over. Or hide behind a mirror so that the bird sees its reflection and thinks that it is talking to another bird.

Matthew Alexander Boreau is fond of animals. He writes about birds. He also sells unique birdhouses [] and bird feeders [] at All American Bird, a 100% Veteran owned business

The Proper Feeding Of An Iguana

Before we discuss the iguana’s diet, let’s take a look at the reptile first. Iguanas like to eat fruits, leaves and flowers. They are able to do this by ripping the items with their razor-sharp teeth. This reptile can become quite large, weighing in at about 20 pounds and growing to approximately 4.9 feet long.

Iguanas are herbivores, which simply means that they only eat plants. Novice owners often mistakenly give their iguanas bugs, which can not be tolerated by the digestive system of the iguana. This is because, unlike the gecko, the iguana’s body can not process food that is rich in protein. Eating bugs can make an iguana very sick so they should not be offered to the iguana.

Many times a new owner will think that it is OK to feed their iguana food that is meant for their other pets in the household. It is vital that you never, ever feed your reptile food that was meant for a cat or dog as they can contain animal proteins. Eggs should also be avoided because of the extra proteins as well as cholesterol. Dairy products, such as milk and cheese should also be avoided as they can not be tolerated by the digestive system.

So what do iguanas eat that is best suited to their specific digestive needs? The largest part of its diet should be green vegetables. Feeding your pet okra, beans and peas are also excellent ideas. Although uncommon, it is a good idea to add mangos and cactus leaves to the diet when possible. For an occasional treat, feed your iguana food that is grain based and fruits.

There are also plants that can be poisonous and should be avoided, such as rhubarb and other plants that grow in the wild. If you do not know what the plant is, it could be poisonous due to the spraying of herbicides.

Some iguana owners plant their own supply of iguana food. This can be a good idea, both for safety and savings. While lettuce is green, it should be avoided as it has too few nutrients to add anything to the iguana’s diet.

You should add new plants to your pet’s diet gradually. You can expect that your pet may dislike fruits that have a lot of acidic properties such as tomatoes, pineapples and oranges. While a food such as tofu can be given, it should be done in servings that are small.

It is also important that calcium and phosphorus be given at a 2:1 ratio in order to give the reptile strong bones. If these two are imbalanced, your pet is likely to develop Metabolic Bone Disease. The good news is that you will be able to feed your pet a mixture of plants to obtain the correct ratio.

It is important that all pets are given fresh water as this will aid in digestion. Whether you choose to spray the water on their meal or given them a bowl of water, they will be healthier and happier for it.

Frank Logi is a writer who has a great interest iguanas and their care,if you would like more information and top tips please review our site we are here to help you become a responsible pet owner what do iguanas eat

The Danger of Exotic Species

What are exotic species? Exotic species are species that are not native to the environment. They can be plants, fish, or animals. The reason they are dangerous is that they can invade a native environment and take over because the native species, whether plant, fish, or mammal, do not have the means to defend themselves against the exotic introduced species.

One exotic species, that is not really so exotic, but comes under the heading of harmful or potentially harmful and can overtake an environment and affect the ecosystem is the common goldfish. Goldfish are plentiful. They are easily obtained. And they may be dumped into a local pond or lake where they can grow and crowd out native species as they eat food meant for the native species. Another fairly well-known example is how pythons have been taking over the Everglades in Florida, even able to consume alligators.

Potentially harmful plants include water hyacinths, giant salvinia, and hydrilla. Exotic fish include Asian carp which go by the names of grass, silver, and bighead; tilapia, and zebra mussels. Harmful plants and animals are regulated by strict state laws. Permits are required to transport them. There are fines if these species are found. There are some permits given to zoologists or for research purposes, but outside of that there are strict controls against exotic and potentially harmful species. Texas alone has a 370 page book that presents information on the various species and similar species. If you do a Google search for “exotic species regulated”, in conjunction with a specific state’s name, such as “Texas exotic species regulated”, you will find the different states have information and links specific to their state regulations. The point is, the issue of exotic species and dangerous species is an important topic.

For example, in the case of the zebra mussel, it is required that boats be drained of water as they leave or approach public fresh water. Plus, these mussels cannot be found clinging to the vessel. Other regulations cover the clinging of vegetation to the boat, or regulations on live bait. The only way to know the regulations for the particular state where you live or vacation is to search out the regulations of that particular state. People in tournaments are covered by special rules and documentation that the tournament organizers possess.

Another form of regulation concerns transporting live, non-game fish in specific geographic locations. In other words, certain geographical locations have specific rules covering only them. These will be better known by the locals, but if you are going into a certain location, it is worth searching out these regulations so as not to be in violation. The purpose of these regulations is to keep the native species alive and well, and keep the non-native species from overcoming the native species and destroying the natural ecosystem.

Cheryl Jones is a copywriter, and online entrepreneur. She authors on a variety of topics, including writing for outdoor businesses such as and [] Whether the topic be niche or expansive, she has the ability to construct knowledgeable, quality copy.


Tips on Freshwater Crayfish Care

Freshwater crayfish are beautiful and fascinating creatures to house in an aquarium. There are over 100 different species of crayfish which differ in color, from yellow to green and brown to red. Most of them live up to 3 years, though some may live longer. Nonetheless there is more to keeping crayfish than just throwing them in the tank. Even though they live in mud when in the wild, ensuring that the creature is both healthy and happy at all times is very important.

You must pay attention to a number of factors including, water chemistry and quality, whom they are sharing the tank with and diet. You must also understand that different species of the fish have slightly different needs, temperaments and behavior. Here is a comprehensive guide on freshwater crayfish care:

Water parameters

This is one of the most important factors associated with freshwater crayfish care. If the water conditions in the aquarium are not right, your fish may become uncomfortable or even die. So before you start keeping crayfish learn about cycling your fish tank. Here are some other great points to consider:

– Make sure you keep the water at a Ph. level between 7 and 8.

– Crayfish will do fine at room temperature water, but do not let the water get too hot, above (80 F/26 C).

– Crayfish thrive well in hard water. The minimum water hardness should be between (8-12 dGH and KH (140-210).

– Crayfish that are deficient in iodine usually experience problems when molting. The easiest way to make sure that they have enough iodine is to purchase marine iodine. A single bottle can last you several months.

– Just like any other fish tank, changing your filters monthly and 25 percent water of your water every two weeks is very important with freshwater crayfish care.

What do crayfish eat?

Crayfish are omnivores, meaning they feed on plants and animals; mainly fish. Usually pet crayfish are fed sinking pellets. In addition to that, vegetables like zucchini, spinach, frozen peas and collard greens are also great for crayfish. You can supplement their diet with feeder fish every now and then. Crayfish absolutely love fish. So don’t be surprised if one of your fish come up missing one day.

Also note that the fish require a lot of calcium to help them grow their exoskeleton. This basically means that in your aquarium, you should make sure that they are receiving enough calcium in their diet. Vegetables like spinach and collard greens are great sources of calcium. It is also acceptable to give them a supplement of brine shrimp or frozen krill once or twice a week.

How often do they eat?

Freshwater crayfish only need to be fed once a day. But plant food can be left in the aquarium indefinitely. If your crayfish eats a fish, and leaves pieces of the fish, make sure you remove the pieces quickly.

Can I keep crayfish in a tank with live plants?

Crayfish feed on anything they come across. Even though this may not be true for all crayfish, it is safe to assume that they will eat or destroy your plants. That is why it’s always a good idea to have artificial plants for your tank.


Most animals including crustaceans like freshwater crayfish undergo a process known as molting. This is shedding of their exoskeleton so as to accommodate the fish’s growth. If you note that the fish is hiding more or eating less than usual, it may be a sign that he his molting. When they molt do not remove the shell from the aquarium, he will consume it to facilitate growth of the new exoskeleton.

With these freshwater crayfish care tips, you should be able to have a healthy pet crayfish. Their lifecycle is very fascinating to watch and the fish will sometimes do things that will make you laugh out loud. Take care of them properly and they will reward you with several years of enjoyment.

Elvis writes about self defense, health issues, guns and his favorite hobby blue crayfish.

Miniature Pigs And What You Need to Know Before Getting One As a Pet

If you have heard of miniature pigs, then you should know that they can be affectionate and fun pets to keep around the home. Learn a bit about these furless animals and why you might want one as your next pet.

What are they?

Miniature pigs, micro pigs or teacup pigs, as they are also called, are a small breed of pigs which will normally not reach more than 30 lbs. in weight. They are very intelligent and sociable animals, and the best thing about them is that you can keep a pig and make fun without having to keep a 400 lb. animal in your home. Most of them are sold by respected breeders, and you could get one for a decent price.

Training your teacup pig

One of the main reasons why miniature pigs are popular as pets is that they can be trained just like dogs or cats. You can potty train your micro pig so as to not have to clean your home every time someone has had too much too eat. These small animals are also easy to teach commands to, and they can sit, walk with you on a leash or even play dead if you wish to see a pig in that posture.

These small pigs are not fussy when it comes to food, so you could feed your favorite pet almost anything you have in mind as long as you try to keep its diet reasonably balanced.

Keeping a trusted friend for years

These pigs will easily get attached to you, and another thing which distinguishes them from other types of pets is that they are very smart. Just make sure you train your micro pig if you don’t want to have dominant display when trying to peacefully watch a ballgame.

These funny little pigs can live for 15 to 20 years, making them some if the most long lived pets of this type. What this means is that you don’t have to worry about becoming too attached, as you will likely share many years in the company of your teacup pig.

Careful when buying your teacup pig

One of the things you should be careful about is where you get your miniature pigs from. There are many unscrupulous breeders which may sell you an animal which is named a micro pig only to discover in a year that the small cuddly animal has reached over 300 lbs. You wouldn’t want a huge pig wondering around the home, asking for food, would you?

Your best bet would be to search online for a reputable teacup pig breeder, and a good idea would be to also see the parents of the pig before you buy it. These are also sold above 1,000 dollars, so if the breeder is asking anything less than that, you should make sure you are buying an actual miniature pig and not a pig that is now small but who will reach several hundred pounds.

So get one of these cuddly miniature pigs from a trusted breeder and enjoy the company of one of the funniest pets around.

My name is O’Reilly and I hope you enjoyed my article on Miniature Pigs. To get much more information on raising one of these lovable pets and what to expect from birth to old age please feel free to visit our website HERE.

Caring for Your Rabbit

With long ears, a twitchy nose, and a puff ball tail, rabbits have long been a popular pet. Caring for your pet rabbit can be time consuming, but, if done right, it will give you the affections of a beloved member of your family.

Choosing the right hutch: indoors or outdoors

In the past, rabbits were largely kept outdoors. Provided with a sturdy hutch, they can be kept safe and clean outdoors. They can also be given an enclosed area of grass for a run.

However, many now prefer to keep their rabbits indoors. Inside, they can be kept in a hutch or allowed to roam free as house rabbits. In either case, they should be given plenty of time to exercise.

Exercise for your rabbit

A rabbit’s main exercise will be running, or hopping around. The larger the area, the more they will be able to do, but any exercise area should give them enough space to do several fully stretched hops. It is also possible to train a rabbit to walk on a lead, but many rabbits do not enjoy having a harness or lead on.

Another way of giving your rabbit exercise is to make them search for their food. Rabbits will naturally graze on plants throughout the day, looking for hidden treats. Your pet rabbit should have plenty of good quality hay and free access to water throughout the day. Rabbit pellets and fresh fruit and vegetables can supplement the hay. Each rabbit will have its own preferred food, but there are some that can cause problems for any rabbit.

What to feed your rabbit and understanding them

Keeping your rabbit away from dangerous foods, such as the leaves and stems of tomatoes, iceberg lettuce, cucumbers, and too many processed treats, can do a lot for their health. The biggest health concerns for rabbits are related to their digestion, including gut stasis and bloating.

It’s important to understand the signals your rabbit gives. In nature, they are a prey animal and much of the prey behaviours are present in pet rabbits. Most notably, they do not do anything to express their illness or pain. As a rabbit owner, you must be able to notice small changes in your pet’s behaviour or eating habits and be ready to get them medical treatment as soon as possible.

Are rabbits right for you and your children?

The need to carefully monitor rabbits is part of why they are often not suitable pets for children. While children can enjoy playing with a rabbit, they may not have the ability to give it the veterinary care needed. Depending on training and socialization, rabbits may also bite or not tolerate being handled, something many children simply don’t understand.

Like any pet, a rabbit is not a small commitment. Whether you opt for a smaller breed, such as a Netherland Dwarf, or a bigger breed, such as a Flemish Giant, your pet rabbit will require food, healthcare, and lots of attention. You may also need to prepare your home for a rabbit by ensuring that there are no exposed wires that they could chew through. However, a rabbit can also be an excellent pet, bringing a lot of love and joy to a family.